Academy Documents

Please access the Students' Policies & Forms through this link. The following documents are all available in the link - Student Handbook, Student Code of Conduct,  Students' Privacy Notice, Deferral, Suspension, and Cancellation Policy, Assignment Extension Policy, Re-Sit Policy, Complaints Procedure Policy, Equality Policy and Student Disciplinary Policy.

Online Sessions Link

To connect to the online sessions of this module please click on this link . You will be asked to register your attendance if you are not already signed in into your Zoom account. You will also be asked for the password which is below.

Meeting ID: 879 1354 2619
Passcode: 631276

MCE Session Link - 12 April 2023 at 17:30 hrs.

Meeting ID: 831 5101 4449
Passcode: 412499

Make sure that you show with your name & surname as you have been registered for the study programme. This is very important for attendance purposes.

Lecture Schedule & Notes

Lecture notes will be available during the week following the respective lecture. Schedule dates are indicative and may change. All changes, if any, may be communicated via email, SMS or telephone calls.

LectureDateTimePresentationNotes (If Any)Session Recording
Lecture 0107 March 202317:30 to 20:00hrsPresentation 01Request
Lecture 0214 March 202317:30 to 20:00hrsPresentation 02Request
Lecture 0321 March 202317:30 to 20:00hrsPresentation 03Request
Lecture 0428 March 202317:30 to 20:00hrsPresentation 04Request


Dr Nicola Jaccarni

Dr Maria Magro

Lecture Summaries & Suggested Reading 

Lecture 1 - Introduction to Commercial Law

  • Definition and brief history of Commercial Law
  • Fundamental principles of Commercial Law
  • Sources of Commercial Law
  • Basic contractual principles
  • Acts of Trade;
    • Objective Acts of Trade
    • Subjective Acts of Trade
  • Difference between Acts of Trade an Acts of a Civil Nature

Core Reading List

Supplementary Reading List


Lecture 2 - The Trader

  • Definition of Trader
  • Requirements for becoming a trader
  • Commercial Partnerships
  • Limited and Unlimited Liability
  • Declaration of Bankruptcy
  • Emancipation of Minors to Trade
  • Barriers to Trade

Core Reading List

Supplementary Reading List


Lecture 3 - Duties of Traders

  • The three main duties of Traders
  • Duty of the Keeping of Trade Books
  • Duty to Publish Marriage Contracts
  • Duty to keep within the Limits of Fair Competition
    • Notion of Unfair Competition
    • Protection of Trademarks
    • Articles 32 - 37 of the Commercial Code

Core Reading List

Supplementary Reading List


Lecture 4 - Credit Instruments and Bills of Exchange

  • What is credit?
  • Definition of Credit Instruments
  • Characteristics of Credit Instruments
  • What are Bills of Exchange & their development
  • Formalities of Bills of Exchange
  • Endorsement of Bill of Exchange
  • Promissory Notes

Core Reading List

Supplementary Reading List


Methods of Assessment

Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) examination - 20% weighting

1 out of a choice of 3 assignment titles. - 80% weighting


You have to choose 1 out of the 3 questions which will be made available in the Assignment Submission form below. Assignment should be submitted by not later than Thursday 11 May 2023. The assignment has to be submitted together with the Assignment Submission Form. Please indicate the questions which you have addressed in the Assignment Submission form.

Assignment Submission Form

If you need information on how to plan, draft and submit your assignment follow the 21 Academy presentation on Writing and Submitting your Assignment.

We are also making the 21 Academy's Assignments Rubric available for your guidance. This is a performance-based assessment tool. Tutors will use the rubric to assist them to allocate scoring while it allows students to understand what is required in the assignment and how it will be graded. For referencing purposes, as much as possible please use the Oscola Referencing Guide.

Submitting Assignment - Turnitin

The Academy will notify you that assignment questions are available through an email. Through another email sent to you by turnitin (probably on the same day) you will be notified that you have been added to a "class" where you may upload your assignment/s. Assignments should be submitted by not later than 23:59hrs of the assignment submission deadline shown on the Assignment Submission form and/or the "class".

At 21 Academy you can submit more than one draft of your assignment before the submission final deadline. The last version left uploaded at the submission deadline will be considered to be your final submission paper and will be the one which will be assessed. Make sure that your final submission does not go beyond 20% similarity when including direct quotations (the sentences in-between quotes).

Follow this very short video to understand how to submit your assignment through turnitin - submitting a paper

To understand the similarity report generated by turnitin follow this 1 minute video - understanding the similarity report

Referencing Style

Oscola Referencing Guide

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